The Ripples Of Spacetime

The Ripples Of Spacetime
By []Judith E Braffman-Miller

It is an early golden morning in mid-July. A warm summer rain had fallen the night before, leaving tattle-tale puddles on the street, where little children play, tossing pebbles into puddles while watching propagating ripples. Gravitational waves propagating throughout Spacetime are similar to those pebble-induced ripples propagating in a puddle of water where children play. According to Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity (1915), gravity is a phenomenon that causes Spacetime to curve in the presence of mass–and the more mass that is contained within a particular volume of Space, the greater the curvature of Spacetime will be at the boundary of this particular volume. As objects with mass travel around in Spacetime, the curvature changes in order to reflect the altering location of those objects–and in certain circumstances, accelerating objects will generate changes in this curvature that propagate outwards at the speed of light in a wave-like way–these propagating phenomena are called gravitational waves. In February 2016, for the first time, scientists announced that they have observed these ripples in the fabric of Spacetime, confirming a major prediction of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity.

Gravitational waves can arrive at Earth from a catastrophic event in the distant Universe, and this very first observation of their real existence in nature opens up an unprecedented new view into the hidden mysteries of the Cosmos. This is because such propagating ripples in Spacetime carry with them important information about their violent and dramatic origins that cannot be obtained by scientists in other ways. The reason for this is that gravitational waves can cut through regions of space that electromagnetic waves cannot penetrate. Astronomers can now study the Universe using gravity as a tool, as well as light. Therefore, gravitational waves can provide a precious gift to astronomers on our planet, providing them with extremely important information about exotic objects in the very distant Universe, such as black holes. Such systems cannot be seen using more traditional means–such as optical telescopes or radio telescopes. Gravitational wave astronomy provides a valuable new understanding into how our mysterious, wonderful, weird, and indisputably bizarre Universe operates. This is especially true for cosmologists, because gravitational waves provide a potential way of observing the primordial Universe. This is not possible with conventional methods of astronomy, since during its early, dark years, the Universe was opaque to electromagnetic radiation. Exact measurements of gravitational waves provide astronomers with a new, one-of-a-kind tool to test Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity. By attaining an understanding of gravitational waves, astronomers can then gain an understanding of what happened at the initial singularity–which is usually thought to have given birth to the Universe almost 14 billion years ago.

According to the inflationary Big Bang model, our Universe was born about 13.8 billion years ago when all of Space emerged from an unimaginably small Patch, that was much smaller than a proton–the initial singularity–and then, in the tiniest fraction of a second, expanded exponentially to attain macroscopic size. That unimaginably tiny Patch, that was much too small for a human being to see, was almost–but not exactly–nothing. That little Patch was so extremely hot and dense that everything we know is thought to have emerged from it. In the madly expanding fireball of the inflationary Big Bang, the newborn Cosmos danced and dazzled with extremely energetic radiation, a searing-hot, seething, turbulent cauldron of sparkling little particles of light (photons). The entire neonatal Universe glared with a blinding brilliance of light. What we are now able to observe, almost 14 billion years later, is the greatly expanded and expanding, dimming aftermath of that primordial blast of newborn, screaming brilliance. And today, Earthlings watch helplessly from their very small and obscure, rocky and watery blue planet, as the primordial fires of the Universal formation fade and cool, as our Cosmos races in its expansion to ultimately darken into the ashes of Eternity–like the haunting smile of the Cheshire Cat in the dream of a sleeping child.

According to the physicists who detected the Spacetime ripples, they were produced by the cataclysmic merger of a duo of black holes, that resulted in the formation of a single, massive, spinning black hole. The head-on collision of two black holes had previously been predicted–but had never been observed before.

The ripples in Spacetime were spotted on September 14, 2015 at 5:51 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time by both of the two twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. The LIGO observatories were funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), and are operated, built, and conceived of by scientists at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, California, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The discovery is to be published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

Based on the signals observed, LIGO scientists calculate that the doomed black holes that caused the event were about 29 and 36 times solar-mass, and the collision and merger occurred about 1.3 billion years ago. About three times the mass of our Sun was converted into gravitational waves in a mere fraction of a second–with a peak power output that amounted to about 50 times that of the entire visible Universe. By looking at the time of the arrival of the signals–the detector in Livingston recorded the event 7 milliseconds before the detector in Hanford–scientists can now say that the event occurred in the Southern Hemisphere.

According to General Relativity, a doomed black hole duo loses energy by emitting gravitational waves. This causes the black holes to slowly approach one another over a span of billions of years, and then move much more rapidly towards their final embrace in the last lingering moments before their great farewell performance. Before their final blaze of glory, in only a fraction of a second, the doomed duo crash together at almost half the speed of light, giving birth to a single more massive black hole–converting a percentage of the combined black holes’ mass to energy, according to Einstein’s famous formula E=mc squared. This energy is tossed out as a final strong burst of gravitational waves–and these are the gravitational waves that LIGO detected.

The LIGO discovery represents the first observation of gravitational waves themselves, accomplished by measuring the tiny disturbances the waves make to Space and Time as they zip through the Earth. Prior to this very first direct detection of gravitational waves, there had already been indirect evidence for their existence. For example, measurements of the Hulse-Taylor binary system indicated that gravitational waves are more than merely a hypothetical concept. Potential sources of detectable gravitational waves include binary stellar systems composed of a duo of white dwarfs, which are the relic cores of dead sunlike stars, and neutron stars that are the relics of more massive stars that perished in the ferocious blast of a supernova explosion. In addition, crashing black holes also provide evidence of the real existence in nature of gravitational waves–and in February 2016, the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration teams announced their historic direct detection of gravitational waves emanating from a pair of merging black holes.

Making Waves

As a gravitational wave passes a distant observer, that observer will see Spacetime distorted by the effects of that traveling ripple. Distances that exist between free objects increase, and then decrease, rhythmically as the wandering wave propagates–and it does so at a frequency corresponding to that of the wave. The magnitude of this effect decreases inversely with distance from the source of the wave. Doomed duos of neutron stars, that are in the process of spiraling inward towards one another, are an especially powerful source of gravitational waves when they finally blast into each other and merge–as a result of the very large acceleration of their masses, as they orbit ever closer, and closer, and closer in the final, fatal movement of their catastrophic dance. Alas, because of the immense distances to these sources, the effects when measured by scientists on Earth, are predicted to be extremely small–having strains of less than 1 part in 10 to the twentieth power. Scientists have demonstrated the real existence of these ripples with increasingly more sensitive detectors.

The existence of these propagating Spacetime ripples was first demonstrated in the 1970s and 1980s by Dr. Joseph Taylor, Jr. and his team. In 1974, Dr. Taylor and Dr. Russell Hulse spotted a binary stellar system composed of a pulsar in orbit around a neutron star. A pulsar is a young neutron star that is spinning very rapidly, emitting regular beams, that have frequently been compared to the bright beams of a lighthouse on Earth.

Dr. Taylor and Dr. Joel M. Weisberg, in 1982, discovered that the orbit of the wildly spinning pulsar was in the process of shrinking over time because of the release of energy in the form of gravitational waves. Dr. Hulse and Dr. Taylor were awarded the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of this pulsar and showing that it would make a possible target for gravitational wave measurement.

The historic LIGO discovery represents the first observation of gravitational waves themselves, made by measuring the minute disturbances the ripples make in Spacetime as they pass through our planet.

“Our observation of gravitational waves accomplishes an ambitious goal set out over five decades ago to directly detect this elusive phenomenon and better understand the Universe, and, fittingly, fulfills Einstein’s legacy on the 100th anniversary of his General Theory of Relativity,” Dr. David H. Reitze commented in a February 11, 2016 National Science Foundation (NSF) Press Release. Dr. Reitze is executive director of the LIGO Laboratory.

The discovery was made using the enhanced capabilities of Advanced LIGO, a major upgrade that increases the sensitivity of the instruments, when compared to the first generation LIGO detectors. These improvements made for a significant increase in the volume of the Universe that astronomers could probe–and this resulted in the important discovery of gravitational waves during its first observation run. NSF is the lead financial supporter of Advanced LIGO. Funding organizations in Germany (Max Planck Society), Australia (Australian Research Council), and the U.K. (Science and Technology Facilities Council, STFC).

LIGO was originally proposed as a method of detecting those elusive gravitational waves in the 1980s by Dr. Rainer Weiss, professor of physics, emeritus, from MIT; Dr. Kip Thorne, Caltech’s Richard P. Feynman Professor physics, emeritus; and Dr. Ronald Drever, professor of physics, emeritus, also from Caltech.

“The description of this observation is beautifully described in the Einstein Theory of General Relativity formulated 100 years ago and comprises the first test of the theory in strong gravitation. It would have been wonderful to watch Einstein’s face had we been able to tell him,” commented Dr. Weiss in the February 11, 2016 NSF Press Release.

“With this discovery, we humans are embarking on a marvelous new quest: the quest to explore the warped side of the Universe–objects and phenomena that are made from warped Spacetime. Colliding black holes and gravitational waves are our first beautiful examples,” Dr. Thorne noted in the same Press Release.

“The Advanced LIGO detectors are a tour de force of science and technology, made possible by a truly exceptional international team of technicians, engineers, and scientists. We are very proud that we finished this NSF -funded project on time and on budget,” Dr. David Shoemaker of MIT noted in the NSF Press Release. Dr. Shoemaker is the project leader for Advanced LIGO.

At each observatory, the 2 1/2-mile long, L-shaped LIGO interferometer uses laser light split into two beams that travel back and forth down the arms (four-foot diameter tubes kept under a near-perfect vacuum). The beams are used to measure the separation between mirrors that are exactly positioned at the tips of the arms. According to Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, the distance between mirrors will change by a very small amount when a gravitational wave wanders by the detector. A change in the lengths of the arms smaller than one-ten-thousandth the diameter of a proton can be detected.

Independent and widely separated observatories are necessary to determine the direction of the event causing the gravitational waves, and also to verify that the signals come from space and are not from some other local phenomenon.

The Ripples Of Spacetime

For the past half-century, gravitational waves have escaped direct detection. Catastrophic mergers of binary systems–such as the merging duo of black holes that emitted the newly discovered gravitational waves–can trigger explosive, brilliant fireworks of dazzling light. This fabulous light display enabled a team of astronomers, shortly thereafter, to hunt for evidence of a visible afterglow left by the Cosmic smash-up. Although none was spotted, this work represents the first detailed search for a visible counterpart of a gravitational event. It also will serve as a model for similar event follow-up in the future.

“Our team has been anxiously waiting for the first detection of gravitational waves so that we can rapidly point the Dark Energy Camera at this location and search for the associated visible light. It’s one of the most powerful instruments in the world for this purpose,” explained Dr. Edo Berger in a February 13, 2016 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) Press Release. Dr. Berger, who is of the CfA, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is the Principal Investigator of the follow-up team.

The team was quick to observe the sky location of the first gravitational wave source–discovered by LIGO–within only a day of its announced discovery on September 16, 2015.

The joint discovery of gravitational waves and light is a difficult task, demanding that large and wide field telescopes quickly scan the sky location of a gravitational wave source. The team used the 3 square-degree Dark Energy Camera (DECam) Imager mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile.The search program represents a collaboration between astronomers from many institutions in the United States, the Dark Energy Survey (DES), and members of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration.

“Planning and executing these observations immediately became our top priority. It was hectic, but also thrilling to be able to follow up on such a significant result,” noted Dr. Marcelle Soares-Santos in the same CfA Press Release. Dr. Soares-Santos is of Fermilab, a member of DES, and lead author of the paper describing the search and results.

The astronomers had to overcome an important hurdle because the search area was very large: 700 square degrees of the sky, which is about 2,800 times the size of the full Moon. For more than three weeks, the scientists observed large swaths of this region several times–but they did not spot any strange bursts of visible light. They then went on to use this information to assign a limit on the brightness that can serve as a benchmark for future endeavors.

“This first attempt to detect visible light associated with gravitational waves was very challenging, but it paves the way to a whole new field of astrophysics,” Dr. Berger noted in the February 13, 2016 CfA Press Release.

The astronomers plan to continue on their the hunt for visible light emanating from future gravitational wave sources.

This research was submitted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Judith E. Braffman-Miller is a writer and astronomer whose articles have been published since 1981 in various newspapers, magazines, and journals. Although she has written on a variety of topics, she particularly loves writing about astronomy because it gives her the opportunity to communicate to others the many wonders of her field. Her first book, “Wisps, Ashes, and Smoke,” will be published soon.

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7 Tips For Mobile Phone Marketing Success

7 Tips For Mobile Phone Marketing Success
By []Rome Saranto

Are you looking to get started in mobile phone marketing?  Don’t worry – it doesn’t have to be hard!  This type of marketing is actually quite simple and so effective that you’ll be very pleased once you have it in place.  Let me help you with my easy mobile phone marketing guide.

1. Decide what you want mobile phone marketing to do for your business:

Are you looking for more sales?  Are you looking for a new way to interact with your customers? Are you wanting to improve your market share? Are you looking for branding opportunities? Are you wanting to improve traffic on slow days?

2. Determine who your typical customer is that will be signing up for your list:

This is important to know – is it teenagers? Business people? Stay at home mothers? Who are you targeting?

3. Once you know what your goal or intention is and who you are targeting, you can craft the types of messages you will send around that goal or intention.  You can also decide in advance how often you will send messages, and what time of the day you will send messages, and how many you will send in a week.

Will you be trying to catch your customers while they are deciding what to have for dinner?  Are you trying to appeal to them when they are on their way to work?  Are you trying to get their attention just before the close of the work day, or as they are leaving work?

4. Now that you have some idea of who you are sending messages to, what kind of messages you are sending, and when you are sending those messages you want to find a mobile phone marketing vendor.  Look for one with phone support.  Discuss your plan with the agent and see what they say.  Do they offer all of the mobile marketing features that you need and want? Evaluate their available plans and make sure there is one that will meet your needs.

5.  Once you have a plan and a vendor and some text credits, now is the time to get customers on your list.  Put up signs at your place of business.  Hand out flyers with receipts. Have your cashiers verbally tell everyone they talk to about the new list.  Remember, there has to be something very good in it for the customer so they will want to sign up.

6. Once you have a list it is time to start sending out messages!  It is important to send out smoking-hot deals that your customers just can’t refuse.  Make them eager to get text messages from you.

7.  Track your results and tweak your campaigns as necessary to keep results inline with your stated goal.

That’s all there is to it!  I hope this guide has opened your eyes to how easy mobile marketing can be to get started with.  There’s nothing left now but get out there and do it.

The next thing you should do to start harnessing the power of mobile in your []local online marketing strategy is to take what you have learned from this guide and implement it. If you need any help at all please let us know. We would like to help you with your []mobile phone marketing.

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Don’t You Dare Say That!

Don’t You Dare Say That!
By []Dr Neil Flanagan

I’m not being the ‘Word Police’ when I say that we have to be very careful about our language. It’s because the words we use affects our thinking and that thinking affects the way that we behave.

It’s much more that the response to the question, ‘How are you?’ – ‘OK’, ‘Not too bad’, or an outpouring of a list of ailments. (Be warned: When someone enquires about your wellbeing, they probably don’t want you a detailed answer.)

As we age, the words we choose to use become even more important.

Researchers at New York University asked 2 groups of students to construct a sentence using 4 of the 5 words associated with a particular theme. One of the themes, ‘elderly’ contained the words, ‘Florida’, ‘forgetful’, ‘bald’, ‘gray’, and ‘wrinkles’.

When they had completed their initial task, participants were sent to another experiment down the hall. It was the short walk that the experiment was really about. The researchers unobtrusively measured the time it took people to get from one end of the corridor to the other.

It turned out that the young people who had fashioned a sentence from the words with the ‘elderly’ theme walked down the hallway significantly slower than those who chose another theme. Researchers concluded two things: a set of words primed thoughts of old age, even though the word ‘old’ was never used; and thoughts prime behaviour, walking slowly is usually associated with older age.

An immediate implication is, of course, that we need to take control of the words we use and, therefore, our thoughts – the nature of information we ‘feed’ ourselves and expose ourselves to; including the quality of the company we keep. (This message was brilliantly demonstrated in a Seinfeld episode in which George Costanza was sacked by an ‘old guy’ (a widower in his ‘eighties) with whom George had volunteered to provide company. George’s ‘companion’ opted out of the relationship, identifying George’s negativity as a severe health hazard.)

While it’s useful to know that there’s research supporting the idea that the words we use have an effect on the way that we behave, we can use this valuable information in reverse in our everyday lives. Two things are required of you.
Listen to particular words that people choose to use.

Ask yourself, why would they use those words?

As Wittgenstein observed, ‘ The limits of my language are the limits of my world’.

One of Neil Flanagan’s bestselling books BLINK! The Speed of Life (How to add years to your life and life to your years) can be downloaded for free when you visit

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How to Become a Project Manager: Can You Learn by Watching?

While you’re studying project management and waiting for your first project job, there are opportunities to observe what others are doing and learn from their experience. While our own experience is what we seek, learning from others can help you overcome pitfalls down the track.

How to Become a Project Manager: Can You Learn by Watching?
By []Margaret E Cato-Smith

Going on a formal project management course is a must for an aspiring project manager. However, there are a number of additional approaches you can use to develop your project management skills. Direct experience is often cited as the ultimate teacher and most would agree that this is undoubtedly true. The problem is though, that you may not always be in the ideal position to be gaining direct experience. In this case, a secondary approach can be taken. I call it the ‘watch, analyse and learn’ strategy.

For this approach to be effective, you need to be in a situation where you have the opportunity to observe a project or a number of projects. Typically, there are always projects going on in any business today. This is essentially due to the fast pace at which the business environment is changing. I find that the most ideal situation requires that you are sitting among or very close to where the project activity is occurring. Because of the modern trend of open plan offices, you get to hear some of the chatter between project team members. There is also the opportunity to have conversations over a cup of coffee.

There are a number of specific things you can look for while observing. Does the chatter sound as if things are going well or not? In each case, see if the success or failure can be attributed to specific ways of operating. Watch how the project team members work together. Are they co-operative or otherwise? If not, why do you think this is? Could anything be done to improve relationships? Are there issues external to the project team members that are affecting their ability to do their work? All of this information is valuable to you as you learn to become a project manager. However, it is only useful, if you are able to come up with alternative approaches that overcome any issues you may be seeing. Always ask yourself how you would do ‘it’ if you were the project manager. Think about what you’ve learned in your project management studies and how some of the theory may apply in practice.

There are some ‘DON’Ts’ that you need to pay attention to. Remember you’ve got your own job to do and you must not compromise this. Your reputation has to be intact if you are to get an opportunity to try out your own project management skills. Don’t get involved in ‘gossip’. Simply listen and observe and draw conclusions that are useful for your own learning experience.

What if you feel you can contribute an improvement? Tread very carefully. Remember, you are an outsider, not involved in the project at all. While you may have an interest, you have not been employed to contribute at all. If your suggestion relates directly to the work of someone you get on well with, then potentially broach the topic carefully. Otherwise, you might try talking with your own supervisor and getting some advice before diving in headlong. When looking for project team members, the ability to work well with others is always a requirement. Hence, be careful to always demonstrate that you are a team player.

In the final analysis, look for things you can learn even if you are not on a project. Some projects work well, some don’t and there is a lot of variation in between. Watching projects can therefore be an excellent way to see the different ways in which the theory behind project management can be implemented.

From this article, you can see that studying a formal project management course is not the only activity that will support your desire to become a project manager.

If you’re interested in more information on How to Become a Project Manager, then check out the following website.

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Steps to Becoming A Real Success Story

Steps to Becoming A Real Success Story
By []Terri Louise Clay

The Definition of success is: The achievement of something, desired, planned or attempted. So in a nut shell just means anything that you are trying to do or be, whether it be starting your own business, making more money, writing a book, etc. Once you achieve the life that you have envisioned in your mind, that is what makes you successful.

Eric Thomas, “world known” motivational speaker’s video went viral. He said if you want success as bad as you want to breathe, then you will be successful. Wow I’m sure everyone wants to breathe so really what are the steps to become a real success story? People are yearning and wanting success. We all want to make more money, or have more than we already have right now. But how bad do we really want it? How do we really become a real success story.

The steps to becoming a real success story are not always simple as one may think. If so everyone would be a success story, everyone would be making more money, or everyone would be starting their own business, etc. But if you want it as bad as you want to breathe success will not only come but will change your life to ways that you never saw before. There are 5 magical steps that will help your produce true success.

1. Find your purpose ~ Find your purpose and true happiness will come. We were all created with a thought in mind and with a true purpose. Finding your purpose will help you live longer and grow stronger. What if we were sitting in a chair expecting it to ride us down the street like a car would. It wouldn’t work would it? That’s because it’s not the purpose of the chair to take us here or there. Find your purpose and the success you yearn for will push you to becoming a real success story.

2.  Write the Vision ~ Writing the vision is the 2nd step to becoming a real success story. The bible says in Habakkuk 2:2, 3 to write the vision and make it plain, and yes it may tary but no matter what or how crazy life may get it will TRULY come. In a nutshell it just says that your dreams and vision will come to life. Writing the vision is another word for setting goals for yourself and seeing who you will become and be and what your real live success story will look like.

3. Be willing to Fail ~ All real success stories are full of failure stories. Oh yes all successful people failed at one time or another. The Michael Jordans, Donald Trumps, and Les Browns of the world were all willing to fail. They just didn’t quit. The continued to try over and over again until they become a real success story.

4. Surround yourself with other real success stories ~ Yes the bible says to be thou unequally yoked with unbelievers. That just means continue to surround yourself around like-minded people. If you want to be a real success story, then surround yourself with other people who live, breathe and produce success.

5. Be a positive thinker ~ All people who are a real success continued to believe that they could do anything possible than they believed. Even when the chips were down and negative things happened they still believed that they would be a success no matter what the results.

People who are a s just do things differently and proceed to win no matter what. Want to be a real success story just do it and make it happen no matter what.

Terri L Clay is an inspirational speaker who travels the world putting on Girls Night Out Vision Board Parties in 8 major cities ( Washington, DC, Atlanta, GA, Louisville, Ky, Runway Bay, Jamacia, Milwaukee, WI, Chicago, IL, and Houston, TX. She is helping to empower women and girls to make life happen no matter what. RSVP at

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